No Bull Economics Lessons

Macroeconomics & Microeconomics Concepts You Must Know

Review: Islam (Chapter 10)

  • Mecca - Important trading center and pilgrimage site; Site of the Ka'ba (original house of worship built by Abraham); modern day Saudi Arabia; crossroads of Africa, Asia, and Europe.
  • Bedouins - Nomadic desert tribesmen that began settlements on the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Muhammad - Prophet and messenger of Allah in the Islamic faith.
  • Hijrah - Muhammad and followers move to Yathrib; Muhammad gains a stronger following and city is renamed Medina.
  • Qur'an - Holy book of Islam; Revelations of Muhammad; Written in Arabic; spreads the language. 
  • Five Pillars - Religious duties that practicing Muslims must perform.
    • Faith - There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah
    • Prayer - Five times a day facing Mecca
    • Alms - Giving money to the poor
    • Hajj - Pilgrimage (religious journey) to Mecca
    • Fasting - No food or drink from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan.
  • Caliph - Successor of Muhammad.
  • Caliphate - "rightly guided Caliphs" or first four successors of Muhammad; Abu-bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali; Spread Islam with military conquest and tolerance.
  • People of the Book - Jews and Christians were protected and allowed to follow their faith under Muslim rule.
  • Umayyads - Muslim Dynasty that moves capital to Damascus; Hereditary succession; Large palaces and wealth.
  • Abbasids - Overthrow Umayyads; moves capital to Baghdad.
  • House of Wisdom - Scholarly center in Baghdad; Scholars translated Greek and Latin texts into Arabic.
  • Shi'a - "Party of Ali;" Group that resisted Umayyad rule; Believed that the successor of Muhammad should be a descendant.
  • Sunni - Group that believed successor could be a follower of Muhammad's example.
  • Sufi - Mystic group of Islam; Live simple life that strictly follows Qur'an; Disliked the Umayyad wealth and ceremony.
  • Shari'a - System of law; alternate spelling is Shariah
  • Sunna - Muhammad's proper example of living; source of authority under Islam.
  • Social Classes - Upper consisted of Muslims by birth; then converted Muslims; then "protected people;" Lowest class consists of slaves.
  • Al-Khwarizmi - Developed al-jabr (Algebra!)
  • Calligraphy - Fine artistic handwriting; against Muslim law to draw pictures of living beings.