Macroeconomics & Microeconomics Concepts You Must Know
Review: Islam (Chapter 10)
- Mecca - Important trading center and
pilgrimage site; Site of the Ka'ba (original house of worship built by
Abraham); modern day Saudi Arabia; crossroads of Africa, Asia, and
- Bedouins - Nomadic desert tribesmen that began settlements on the Arabian Peninsula.
- Muhammad - Prophet and messenger of Allah in the Islamic faith.
- Hijrah - Muhammad and followers move to Yathrib; Muhammad gains a stronger following and city is renamed Medina.
- Qur'an - Holy book of Islam; Revelations of Muhammad; Written in Arabic; spreads the language.
- Five Pillars - Religious duties that practicing Muslims must perform.
- Faith - There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah
- Prayer - Five times a day facing Mecca
- Alms - Giving money to the poor
- Hajj - Pilgrimage (religious journey) to Mecca
- Fasting - No food or drink from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan.
- Caliph - Successor of Muhammad.
- Caliphate - "rightly guided Caliphs" or
first four successors of Muhammad; Abu-bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali; Spread
Islam with military conquest and tolerance.
- People of the Book - Jews and Christians were protected and allowed to follow their faith under Muslim rule.
- Umayyads - Muslim Dynasty that moves capital to Damascus; Hereditary succession; Large palaces and wealth.
- Abbasids - Overthrow Umayyads; moves capital to Baghdad.
- House of Wisdom - Scholarly center in Baghdad; Scholars translated Greek and Latin texts into Arabic.
- Shi'a - "Party of Ali;" Group that resisted Umayyad rule; Believed that the successor of Muhammad should be a descendant.
- Sunni - Group that believed successor could be a follower of Muhammad's example.
- Sufi - Mystic group of Islam; Live simple life that strictly follows Qur'an; Disliked the Umayyad wealth and ceremony.
- Shari'a - System of law; alternate spelling is Shariah
- Sunna - Muhammad's proper example of living; source of authority under Islam.
- Social Classes - Upper consisted of Muslims by birth; then converted Muslims; then "protected people;" Lowest class consists of slaves.
- Al-Khwarizmi - Developed al-jabr (Algebra!)
- Calligraphy - Fine artistic handwriting; against Muslim law to draw pictures of living beings.