No Bull Economics Lessons

Macroeconomics & Microeconomics Concepts You Must Know

Review: Early Humans (Chapter 1)

Human Origins in Africa and the Birth of Civilization
  • Mary Leakey - Archaeologist that discovered footprints of early hominids (Australopithecus) in Tanzania, suggesting that man walked upright earlier than believed.
  • Old Stone Age - Early humans led a nomadic lifestyle; Also known as the Paleolithic Era (2.5 million BC - 8,000 BC); Stone, bone, and wood tools for hunting and gathering. Created art such as necklaces, beads, carved sculptures of animals, and cave paintings. 
  • Neolithic Revolution - An agricultural revolution, meaning a shift from food gatherer to food producer; New Stone Age (8,000 BC - 3,000 BC); Caused by warming climate, rich supply of grain, and food demands on population boom; Led to settled communities, slash-and-burn farming, and the domestication of animals.
  • Civilization - An advanced civilization consists of five components: Advanced cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology.
  • Artisans - Skilled workers that make goods by hand.
  • Mesopotamia - Land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq; the flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers was unpredictable presenting a challenge to early civilizations.
  • Sumerians - One of the world's earliest civilizations; Mesopotamia; early irrigation systems; invented the wheel, sail, and the plow.
  • Scribes - Professional record keepers.
  • Cuneiform - System of writing on clay tablets (3000 BC).
  • Ziggurat - Massive temple complex in ancient Sumer; dedicated to the moon god, Nanna; used for religious purposes, storage of grain, and record keeping.
  • Barter Economy - Trading goods without money.
  • Bronze Age - Begins approximately 3000 BC; metal workers melt copper and tin together; bronze used for armor and arrowheads (2500 BC).