No Bull Economics Lessons

Macroeconomics & Microeconomics Concepts You Must Know

Science, Enlightenment, French Revolution

  • Nicolaus Copernicus - Polish astronomer that introduced the sun-centered or heliocentric planetary theory during the Scientific Revolution.
  • Johannes Kepler - Used mathematics to show that planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits.
  • Galileo Galilei - Italian astronomer that defends the heliocentric model before the Catholic church; also observed Jupiter's moons.
  • Isaac Newton - British scientist that discovered the law of gravitation during the Scientific Revolution.
  • Scientific Method - Francis Bacon helped to develop this method for solving problems during the Scientific Revolution.
  • John Locke - British thinker that discussed the concept of natural rights (life, liberty, and property) and that the government's job is to protect these rights.
  • Thomas Hobbes - British thinker that argued that an absolute monarch is the best form of government due to peoples selfish behavior in work known as Leviathan.
  • Philosophe - French word that means philosopher during the Enlightenment period; Believed in progress and the relationship between people and the government.
  • Baron de Montesquieu - Enlightenment philosopher that stressed the idea of separation of powers in the government. ex. Three branches of government.
  • Denis Diderot - created the first encyclopedia consisting of the works of Enlightenment thinkers; work banned by the Catholic church.
  • Baroque - A grand style of art and music in the 1600s-early 1700s. ex. Haydn, Bach, Mozart.
  • Enlightened Despot - An absolute ruler that is inspired by Enlightenment philosophies. ex. Catherine the Great applies ideas to Russia's laws.
  • Third Estate - Approximately 98% of France's population that paid high taxes under the Old Regime of King Louis XVI; consists of the bourgeoisie, urban class, peasants.
  • Bourgeoisie - France's middle class that embraces Enlightenment ideals leading up to the French Revolution; gained influence during the Revolution.
  • Fall of the Bastille - Symbolizes beginning of the French Revolution; mob storms political prison and looks for gunpowder on July 14, 1789.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man - Statement of rights that the French people feel entitled to during the Revolution; Similar to the American Declaration of Independence; the slogan of the revolution is "liberty, equality, and fraternity (brotherhood)."
  • Reign of Terror - Time period following the overthrow of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette; Committee of Public Safety led by Maximilien Robespierre sentences thousands to die, often by the guillotine. Eventually, Robespierre is sent to guillotine by his fellow revolutionaries, ending the terror.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte - Military leader that seized power in France through a coup d'etat; set up lycees (gov't run schools), national bank, fairer tax code, and code of law that limited individual freedoms; Crowns himself Emperor of France with the support of the Pope.
  • Plebiscite - vote of the people; military used this vote to approve the new French constitution which granted him dictatorial powers.
  • Louisiana Purchase - Napoleon sold territory to USA in order to hurt the British and cut some of France's debt.
  • Battle of Trafalgar - British navy led by Horatio Nelson defeats French navy by splitting the French fleet; Nelson also had success against Napoleon in Egypt 1790s.
  • Continental System - French blockade to hurt British economy; Britain responds with blockade of their own.
  • Scorched-Earth Policy - Czar Alexander I of Russia burned all resources and livestock during Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
  • Congress of Vienna - Meeting of European powers to establish a balance of power in Europe after the Age of Napoleon; results in peace and stability but ignores nationalistic feelings in areas under foreign control; Austrian prince Metternich was the most influential participant.

Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment - No Bull Review Lesson

French Revolution - No Bull Review Lesson