Macroeconomics & Microeconomics Concepts You Must Know
Review: Absolute Monarchs (Chapter 21)
- Divine Right
- Absolute monarchs in Europe claimed that their powers came from God
and controlled all aspects of society including politics, the economy,
religion, and the military. They developed in response to territorial
and religious disputes that led to rebellions within their empires.
- Philip II
- Absolute monarch of Spain from the Hapsburg Dynasty that felt it was
his duty to expand the Spanish empire and defend Catholicism. During
his reign, Spain experienced high inflation and taxes.
- El Escorial - Massive granite palace that Philip II built in response to the Protestant Reformation.
- Spanish Armada
- Philip II sent this massive fleet of ships to attack Elizabeth's
England in 1588. England was victorious in part to favorable winds and
the use of "fire ships."
- Don Quixote de la Mancha
- Spain experienced a Golden Age of art. This work by Miguel de
Cervantes featured a man whose imagination runs wild after reading too
many books about Medieval knights.
- United Provinces of the Netherlands - After the Dutch won independence from Spain, a republic or representative government was established.
- Religious Wars in France - During the mid-late 1500's, France experienced eight civil wars due to religious differences between Huguenots and Catholics.
- Edict of Nantes - Henry of Navarre issued this edict granting Huguenots the right to practice in certain French cities.
- Cardinal Richelieu
- Strengthened Bourbon Dynasty in France by forcing nobles to take down
fortified castles, forbade Protestant cities from having walls, and
involved France in 30 Years War to limit Hapsburg power.
- 30 Years War
- Fought between Spanish Hapsburgs (Catholics) and German princes
(protestants) who had aid from France. Even though Spain loses, the war
results in great population loss in Germany.
- Louis XIV
- The "Sun King" forced nobles to live in his grand palace at
Versailles thus making them completely dependent on him. France becomes
cultural envy of Europe during his rule. Famous saying: "I am the
- War of the Spanish Succession - Charles II made Louis XIV's grandson heir to Spain which would have expanded Bourbon rule in Europe.
- Frederick the Great
- King of Prussia that believed a good ruler should be a father to his
people. Fought War of the Austrian Succession and Seven Years War with
Maria Theresa's Austria.
- Boyar - Russian aristocrat (wealthy landowner or noble).
- Ivan the Terrible - Overthrows boyars
and proclaims himself Czar at the age of 16. He organized secret police
to terrorize and murder suspected traitors.
- Peter the Great - Russian czar that
visits Western Europe in order to learn and eventually modernize
(Westernize) Russian military and society. Wins warm water port on the
Baltic Sea which he names St. Petersburg and it keeps Russia in better
contact with the West. Policies leave a large gap between the rich and
- Petition of Right - Signed and ignored
by King Charles I of England, this document aimed to limit the king's
power. Can't imprison subjects w/out due cause, can't levy taxes w/out
Parliament consent, etc.
- English Civil War (1642-1649) - Puritans
led by Oliver Cromwell defeat Royalists, hold King Charles I prisoner,
and have Charles I publicly trialed and executed.
- Parliament - Legislative body in England that struggles for political power with monarchs during the Age of Absolutism.
- English Restoration - Following the totalitarian rule of Cromwell, England asked Charles II to rule as a limited monarch.
- Habeas Corpus (1679) - Prisoner must be
brought before a judge, monarch could not jail someone for opposing the
ruler, and could not hold people indefinitely without trials.
- Glorious Revolution - The bloodless
overthrow of King James II in 1688. William and Mary rule as limited
monarchs and England becomes a constitutional monarchy.
- Constitutional Monarchy - Governmental system in which laws limit the ruler's power.
- English Bill of Rights - Drafted by Parliament in 1689 to state the rights of Parliament and individuals.