Problems in the church - Village priests got married and started families; Simony or when Bishops sell church positions; Lay investiture.
- Gothic style of Church architecture; High vaulted ceilings and large
stained-glass windows; Ex. Cathedral of Notre Dame; Old style was Romanesque which were dark and gloomy on the inside.
Crusades - Holy war between Christian European knights and Muslim Turks; Goal is to recover Jerusalem and holy land from Muslim Turks.
Effects of the Crusades - Lessened the
power of the Pope; Weakens feudal nobility; Weakens the Byzantine
Empire; Bitterness and hatred between Muslims and Christians
Reconquista - The Reconquest of Spain; Goal is to drive Muslims out of Spain; Achieved by Ferdiand and Isabella in 1492.
Three-Field System - Agricultural
achievement during the Middle Ages; Enabled farmers to grow food on 2/3
of the land rather than 1/2 the land each year; Produces more food to
feed the growing population.
Improved Harness - Can fit across a horse without choking them; Horses replace the oxen on the farm.
Craft Guild - Trained apprentices; Power over wages and prices; Set standards for quality; Similar to a labor union.
Usury - Lending money for interest payments considered a sin by the Roman Catholic church.
Vernacular - Common language.
Dante Alighieri - Epic poet that wrote The Divine Comedy which included the Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso.
- Poet that wrote The Canterbury Tales; a collection of stories about
pilgrims on their way to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury
Thomas Aqunias - Scholastic that combined ancient Greek thought with Christian thought of the Middle Ages.
Serfs - Peasant farmers that can win freedom by living in a town for one year and one day.
William The Conqueror - Led a conquest of England; Defeated Godwinson and claimed England his personal private property.
- Document written by nobles in 1215 that forced King John to limit his
powers; Included principles such as no taxation without representation
and right to a fair trial.
- Major principle based on England's royal court of justice; Used
precedents (old court decsions) to decide matters dealing with the law.
- England's legislative (law-making) body; Developed out of the need to
raise money for war; Bicameral (two house) legislature that consists of
the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
Great Schism - Dispute between the French monarch and the Pope; Papacy moves to France for 67 years; Ended up with multiple popes.
- Mysterious disease that claimed the lives of about 40 million people
(25 million in Europe); The Black Death spread through trade; Leads to
the collapse of the manorial system; Church loses power and prestige
due to millions of prayers going unaswered.
Hundred Years War - England vs. France (1337-1453); England has many sucessful battle victories because of the longbow; France wins the war marking an end to chivalrous warfare and the Middle Ages.
Middle Ages - No Bull Review Lesson
Disclaimers: MrMedico.info (2006-2018) is independently operated and is not directly affiliated with PortNet, the official website of the Port Washington Union Free School District. Students in Mr. Medico's classes are always offered free content for any Mr. Medico product advertised on this site. AP® is a trademark registered by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.