Cold War - Following WWII, the US and USSR disagree over the types of governments that should be established in the countries of eastern Europe; leads to economic and military competition between the two including the build-up of nuclear weapons; US supports all countries that resist communism and the USSR supports all countries that embrace it; 1945-1990. "Iron Curtian" - The region in eastern Europe that consisted of the USSR and its communist satellite nations. Truman Doctrine - US Foreign policy to support countries that resisted communism during the Cold War. Space Race - US and USSR very expensive competition that involved space exploration; Soviets launch first satellite called Sputnik; US later land a man on the moon. Domino Theory - Belief that if one Asian country falls to communism then the surrounding nations are prone to falling as well. Korean War
- Civil war that involved communist North Korea and non-communist South
Korea; the U.N. and U.S. send troops to aid South Korea after the North
invaded; China enters the war after the Southern forces led by General
MacArthur push towards China's border; war ends in a stalemate at the
38th parallel in 1953. Vietnam War - Civil war that involved communists North Vietnam led by Ho Chi Minh and non-communist South Vietnam; US sends troops to aid the South. Vietcong - pro-communist guerrillas in South Vietnam. Khmer Rouge - Brutal communist regime in Cambodia led by Pol Pot during the mid-1970s; massacred up to 2 million people in the killing fields; an example of human rights violation. Destalinization - Soviet policy to purge the nation of Stalin's memory. Brinkmanship - a period in the Cold War that showed that the US and USSR were willing to go to the brink of war; heightened tensions during Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson. Cuban Revolution
- Communist revolution in Cuba led by Fidel Castro to overthrow
unpopular dictator Batista; Castro seizes control of the economy; US
imposes embargo; Cuba turns to the USSR for support. Cuban Missile Crisis -
USSR set up missiles in Cuba capable of striking the US; JFK and the
USSR settle the crisis diplomatically; USSR removes missiles and the US
removes missiles in Turkey. Detente - a cooling of the Cold War tensions between the US and USSR beginning under Nixon. Strategic Defense Initiative - a program to protect the US from Soviet missiles under the Reagan administration; also known as "Star Wars." Glasnost - Gorbachev's Soviet policy of "openness" in the 1980s. Perestroika - Gorbachev's policy of "economic restructuring" in the 1980s; allowed some private enterprise. Boris Yeltsin - first elected president of the Russian Republic. Shock Therapy - Yeltsin's policy of an abrupt shift to a market economy in the USSR. Ethnic Cleansing - Bosnian Serbs attempt to rid Bosnia of its Muslims in the 1990s; example of a human rights violation.
Chinese Civil War - Following WWII, civil war resumes between the communists led by Mao Zedong and nationalists led by Jiang Jieshi; Communists triumph with Mao as China's leader. Great Leap Forward - Mao's attempt to increase agricultural and industrial output by forcing people to live on collective communes (farms); millions die from famine. Cultural Revolution - Mao's attempt to create a society of peasants in China; all people with special privileges or that are well-educated are subject to persecution at the discretion of Red Guards. China sees very little economic progress as a result from Mao's policies. Deng Xiaoping - called for the "Four Modernizations" to advance agriculture, industry, defense, and technology; policies lead to real economic progress by adopting an open economy however restricts rights of the Chinese citizens. Tiananmen Square Protests - after being open to Western ideas of freedom and democracy, students protest in 1989 calling for democracy; the military is called in to suppress the protests resulting in a massacre of some of the demonstrators; an example of human rights violations.
Balfour Declaration - A document that shows British support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine as long as non-Jews in the area are not restricted of any rights. Zionism - A movement to get a Jewish homeland in Palestine; during and after Nazi rule in Europe many Jewish people migrate to Palestine; following the Holocaust many countries are sympathetic to this cause. Israel - Jewish state in Palestine established on May 14, 1948; on May 15, 1948 six Muslim countries invade; conflicts continue to do this day; Suez Crisis, Six Day War, and the 1973 Yom Kippur War exemplify these early conflicts; USSR supports several Arab countries while the US supports Israel. Camp David Accords - peace agreement between Egypt (Anwar Sadat) and Israel (Menachem Begin); Egypt recognizes Israel as a state and Israel gives Egypt the Sinai Peninsula; results in the assassination of Sadat by a Muslim extremist. PLO - Palestinian Liberation Organization established by Yasir Arafat to defeat Israel and gain a Palestinian homeland. Intifada - Palestinian campaign of civil disobedience against Israel. Yitzhak Rabin - Israeli leader that was assassinated by an Israeli extremist in the 1990s for agreeing to land and peace for Palestinians. Hamas - Palestinian terrorist organization with a lot of political power in the Gaza Strip that targets Israeli civilians. Iranian Revolution - Ayatollah Khomeini leads an Islamic movement to overthrow the Shah of Iran; rejects all US and western culture in Iran; Islamic fundamentalism
Kashmir - area in northern India that India (mainly Hindu) and Pakistan (mainly Muslim) fought a war over. Taliban - extremist Islamic group that seized control of Afghanistan in the 1990s.
Kwame Nkrumah Jomo Kenyatta Tribalism Apartheid FW de Klerk Nelson Mandela
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