No Bull Economics Lessons

Macroeconomics & Microeconomics Concepts You Must Know

Review: Imperialism (Chapter 27)

  • Imperialism - control by a industrialized nation over a weaker non-industrialized nation; the desire for economic resources, new markets to sell goods, nationalism, racism, and Social Darwinism are factors that led to European imperialism in Africa, India, and South East Asia.
  • Berlin Conference - The discovery of gold and diamonds in Africa led to increased European interest in the continent, also known as the "scramble for Africa"; European leaders met in Berlin in 1884-1885 to prevent them from fighting for the land.
  • Boer War - conflict between Dutch settlers and the British in South Africa; the Dutch Boers were forced onto Zulu territory which led to further conflict against Shaka's army; eventually the Boers join British-run Union of South Africa.
  • Cash Crop - an agricultural product grown for profit rather; leads to famine and starvation in colonized territories.
  • Colony - form of imperialism in which the conquered area is governed by a foreign power; ex. French control of Algeria.
  • Protectorate - form of imperialism in which the conquered area is allowed its own government but under the control of a foreign power; ex. British in Nigeria.
  • Economic Imperialism - controlled by private businesses rather than by a foreign government; ex. British in India (prior to Sepoy Mutiny).
  • Sphere of Influence - claimed as exclusive investment or trading realm of a foreign power; ex. USA with Liberia
  • Direct Rule -  favored by France; European powers govern all affairs.
  • Indirect Rule - favored by Britain and the US; local rulers govern internal affairs.
  • Paternalism - governing as a parent; provide for needs of people while restricting rights.
  • Assimilation - policy of absorbing colonized people into the culture of the imperialist; tools include setting up European-styled schools, establishing an official language, and forming policies that alter the native culture.
  • Menelik II - Ethiopian ruler that defeated the Italian army with European weapons and maintaining independence.
  • Maji Maji Rebellion - unsuccessful uprising in which East Africans tried to resist German machine gun fire with magic water.
  • Crimean War - conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire over control of the Black Sea; Russia loses after Britain and France join the Ottoman Empire; this war represents the beginning of battlefield nurses and war correspondents used in modern wars.
  • Suez Canal - built to connect the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea; Egypt could not repay its loans so the British took control of debt and canal.
  • Muhammad Ali - Egyptian leader that broke away from Ottoman control and instituted a series of reforms and joined the French to build the Suez Canal.
  • Raj - time period of British rule in India.
  • Sepoy Mutiny - bloody uprising of Indian soldiers in British India that began after a new rifle was introduced to the military; beef and pork fat was used to grease the new guns which went against the Hindu and Muslim cultures.
  • Pacific Rim - South East Asia and the islands on the edge of the Pacific Ocean.
  • King Mongkut - leader of Siam that maintained independence by modernizing and playing the British and French rivals against each other.
  • Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Queen Liliuokalani

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