Nicolaus Copernicus - Polish astronomer that introduced the sun-centered or heliocentric planetary theory during the Scientific Revolution.
Johannes Kepler - Used mathematics to show that planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits.
Galileo Galilei - Italian astronomer that defends the heliocentric model before the Catholic church; also observed Jupiter's moons.
Isaac Newton - British scientist that discovered the law of gravitation during the Scientific Revolution.
Scientific Method - Francis Bacon helped to develop this method for solving problems during the Scientific Revolution.
- British thinker that discussed the concept of natural rights (life,
liberty, and property) and that the government's job is to protect
- British thinker that argued that an absolute monarch is the best form
of government due to peoples selfish behavior in work known as Leviathan.
- French word that means philosopher during the Enlightenment period;
Believed in progress and the relationship between people and the
Baron de Montesquieu - Enlightenment philosopher that stressed the idea of separation of powers in the government. ex. Three branches of government.
Denis Diderot - created the first encyclopedia consisting of the works of Enlightenment thinkers; work banned by the Catholic church.
Baroque - A grand style of art and music in the 1600s-early 1700s. ex. Haydn, Bach, Mozart.
Enlightened Despot - An absolute ruler that is inspired by Enlightenment philosophies. ex. Catherine the Great applies ideas to Russia's laws.
- Approximately 98% of France's population that paid high taxes under
the Old Regime of King Louis XVI; consists of the bourgeoisie, urban
- France's middle class that embraces Enlightenment ideals leading up
to the French Revolution; gained influence during the Revolution.
Fall of the Bastille - Symbolizes beginning of the French Revolution; mob storms political prison and looks for gunpowder on July 14, 1789.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
- Statement of rights that the French people feel entitled to during
the Revolution; Similar to the American Declaration of Independence;
the slogan of the revolution is "liberty, equality, and fraternity
Reign of Terror
- Time period following the overthrow of King Louis XVI and Marie
Antoinette; Committee of Public Safety led by Maximilien Robespierre
sentences thousands to die, often by the guillotine. Eventually,
Robespierre is sent to guillotine by his fellow revolutionaries, ending
- Military leader that seized power in France through a coup d'etat;
set up lycees (gov't run schools), national bank, fairer tax code, and
code of law that limited individual freedoms; Crowns himself Emperor of
France with the support of the Pope.
Plebiscite - vote of the people; military used this vote to approve the new French constitution which granted him dictatorial powers.
Louisiana Purchase - Napoleon sold territory to USA in order to hurt the British and cut some of France's debt.
Battle of Trafalgar
- British navy led by Horatio Nelson defeats French navy by splitting
the French fleet; Nelson also had success against Napoleon in Egypt
Continental System - French blockade to hurt British economy; Britain responds with blockade of their own.
Scorched-Earth Policy - Czar Alexander I of Russia burned all resources and livestock during Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
Congress of Vienna
- Meeting of European powers to establish a balance of power in Europe
after the Age of Napoleon; results in peace and stability but ignores
nationalistic feelings in areas under foreign control; Austrian prince
Metternich was the most influential participant.
Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment - No Bull Review Lesson
French Revolution - No Bull Review Lesson
Mr. Medico's Review Books (Paperback)
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