Macroeconomics & Microeconomics Concepts You Must Know
Review: Age of Exploration & the Atlantic (Chapter 19-20)
- Causes of European Exploration - Desire to
spread Christianity; Desire for new sources of wealth; Technological
advances; Competitive spirit of European nations; "God, glory, and
- Prince Henry - Opens a navigation school in Portugal that taught mapmaking, shipbuilding, scientists, sea captains, and instrument making.
- Bartolomeu Dias - Portuguese explorer who sailed around Africa after a storm blew his ships around the Cape of Good Hope in 1488.
- Vasco da Gama - Portuguese explorer who sailed around Africa to reach India in 1498.
- Christopher Columbus - Seeking alternate
route to the riches of Asia, sails west and ends up in the Bahamas; He
thinks he is in the East Indies; 1492.
- Treaty of Tordesillas - Agreement between
Spain and Portugal; Dividing line (Line of Demarcation) in the Atlantic
Ocean that decided ownership of land; Moderated by Pope Alexander IV in
- Ferdinand Magellan - Portuguese explorer that reached the Pacific Ocean by sailing around South America in 1519.
- Conquistadors - Successful conquerors from Spain; Brought armor, horses, guns, diseases, and exploitation to the Americas.
- Hernando Cortes - Spanish conquistador that conquered the Aztecs led by Montezuma II in 1521 (Mexico).
- Francisco Pizarro - Spanish conquistador that conquered the Incan Empire led by Atahualpa in 1532 (Peru).
- Encomienda - System where Native Americans were forced to work on farms and dangerous mines for their Spanish landlords.
- Atlantic Slave Trade - Buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas.
- Triangular Trade - Slaves to America from
Africa; Sugar, molasses, wood, fur, timber from America to Europe;
Guns, cloth, iron from Europe to Africa; Manufactured goods from Europe
to Americas; Gold, ivory, spices from Africa to Europe.
- Middle Passage - Extremely harsh journey that brought African slaves across the Atlantic to the West Indies.
- Effects of the Slave Trade - Africa loses its
strongest members of society; Africa introduced to guns; Mixed-race
populations throughout the Americas; Economic growth from the
back-breaking labor of slaves.
- Columbian Exchange - Exchange of goods between the Americas and Europe, Africa, Asia.
- Mercantilism - Economic policy where nations use colonies to increase their wealth by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver.
- Dutch East India Company - Most powerful trading company in Asia; Minted money, made treaties, and raised armies.
- Zheng He - Chinese Muslim admiral that sailed
under the Ming Dynasty; Beginning in 1405 (before the Europeans)Zheng
He set sail to Southeast Asia and India, then later to Arabia and