Problems in the church - Village priests got married and started families; Simony or when Bishops sell church positions; Lay investiture.
- Gothic style of Church architecture; High vaulted ceilings and large
stained-glass windows; Ex. Cathedral of Notre Dame; Old style was Romanesque which were dark and gloomy on the inside.
Crusades - Holy war between Christian European knights and Muslim Turks; Goal is to recover Jerusalem and holy land from Muslim Turks.
Effects of the Crusades - Lessened the
power of the Pope; Weakens feudal nobility; Weakens the Byzantine
Empire; Bitterness and hatred between Muslims and Christians
Reconquista - The Reconquest of Spain; Goal is to drive Muslims out of Spain; Achieved by Ferdiand and Isabella in 1492.
Three-Field System - Agricultural
achievement during the Middle Ages; Enabled farmers to grow food on 2/3
of the land rather than 1/2 the land each year; Produces more food to
feed the growing population.
Improved Harness - Can fit across a horse without choking them; Horses replace the oxen on the farm.
Craft Guild - Trained apprentices; Power over wages and prices; Set standards for quality; Similar to a labor union.
Usury - Lending money for interest payments considered a sin by the Roman Catholic church.
Vernacular - Common language.
Dante Alighieri - Epic poet that wrote The Divine Comedy which included the Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso.
- Poet that wrote The Canterbury Tales; a collection of stories about
pilgrims on their way to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury
Thomas Aqunias - Scholastic that combined ancient Greek thought with Christian thought of the Middle Ages.
Serfs - Peasant farmers that can win freedom by living in a town for one year and one day.
William The Conqueror - Led a conquest of England; Defeated Godwinson and claimed England his personal private property.
- Document written by nobles in 1215 that forced King John to limit his
powers; Included principles such as no taxation without representation
and right to a fair trial.
- Major principle based on England's royal court of justice; Used
precedents (old court decsions) to decide matters dealing with the law.
- England's legislative (law-making) body; Developed out of the need to
raise money for war; Bicameral (two house) legislature that consists of
the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
Great Schism - Dispute between the French monarch and the Pope; Papacy moves to France for 67 years; Ended up with multiple popes.
- Mysterious disease that claimed the lives of about 40 million people
(25 million in Europe); The Black Death spread through trade; Leads to
the collapse of the manorial system; Church loses power and prestige
due to millions of prayers going unaswered.
Hundred Years War - England vs. France (1337-1453); England has many sucessful battle victories because of the longbow; France wins the war marking an end to chivalrous warfare and the Middle Ages.
Middle Ages - No Bull Review Lesson
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